1) Ratified (Verb) – की पुष्टि करना
Meaning: sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid.
Synonyms: confirm, approve, sanction
Antonyms: reject, revoke
Usage: “both countries were due to ratify the treaty by the end of the year”
2) Concise (Adjective) – संक्षिप्त
Meaning: giving a lot of information clearly and in a few words; brief but comprehensive.
Synonyms: succinct, short, brief
Antonyms: lengthy, discursive, wordy
Usage: “a concise account of the country’s history”
3) Appalling (Adjective) – भय उत्पन्न करनेवाला
Meaning: causing shock or dismay; horrific.
Synonyms: shocking, horrific, horrifying
Antonyms: comforting, consolatory
Usage: “the cat suffered appalling injuries during the attack”
4) Flinging (Verb) – फेंकना या उछालना
Meaning: throw or hurl forcefully.
Synonyms: throw, toss, sling
Antonyms: keeping, retention
Usage: “he picked up the debris and flung it away”
5) Squashing (Verb) – कुचलना
Meaning: crush or squeeze (something) with force so that it becomes flat, soft, or out of shape.
Synonyms: crush, squeeze, flatten
Antonyms: coaxing, encouraging, fanning
Usage: “wash and squash the cans before depositing them”
6) Insouciance (Noun) – चिंता का अभाव
Meaning: casual lack of concern; indifference.
Synonyms: nonchalance, unconcern, lack of concern
Antonyms: anxiety, concern
Usage: “an impression of boyish insouciance”
7) Hapless (Adjective) – अभागी
Synonyms: unfortunate, unlucky, luckless
Usage: “the hapless victims of the disaster”
8) Aggravated (Verb) – बदतर या अधिक गंभीर बनाना
Meaning: make (a problem, injury, or offence) worse or more serious.
Synonyms: annoy, irritate, exasperate
Antonyms: calm, conciliate
Usage: “military action would only aggravate the situation”
9) Dismal (Adjective) – निराशाजनक
Meaning: causing a mood of gloom or depression.
Synonyms: dingy, dim, dark
Antonyms: bright, cheerful
Usage: “the dismal weather made the late afternoon seem like evening”
10) Solidarity (Noun) – एकजुटता
Meaning: unity or agreement of feeling or action
Synonyms: unanimity, unity, like-mindedness
Antonyms: antagonism, disagreement, discord
Usage: “factory workers voiced solidarity with the striking students”
- Hindu Editorial with Vocabulary: Sep Month– Day 17
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